The standard path of the mythological adventure of the hero is a magnification of the formula represented in the rites of passage: separation–initiation–return: which might be named the nuclear unit of the monomyth.
The monomyth is often referred to as the hero’s journey because the pattern of separation, initiation, and return can be studied in many mythologies from all over the world. The typical hero’s journey has a character leave their home in order to face different trials and tribulations which they eventually overcome by growing as a character and then, with newly formed understandings, they return home to help others on their journey to self-improvement.
Separation is the first step and Joseph Campbell refers it to Departure. The Departure has five subsections: The Call to Adventure, Refusal of the Call, Supernatural Aid, The Crossing of the First Threshold, and The Belly of the Whale.
Starting with The Call To Adventure.
The first stage of the mythological journey–which we have designated the “call to adventure”–signifies that destiny has summoned the hero and transferred his spiritual center of gravity from within the pale of his society to a zone unknown.
The call to adventure is an opportunity, which may start as a blunder or be forced upon someone because of circumstances outside of their control. This opportunity is one that can elevate the individual by “awakening of the self” through the acceptance of this call.
For those who are familiar with the story of the Lord of the Rings by J. R. R. Tolkien, you may recall how Frodo Baggins is gifted with the ring of power by his uncle, Bilbo, and this initiates the call for adventure. Frodo has to travel outside his comfortable Hobbit hole into a land unknown in order to destroy the ring.
However, just because there is a call to adventure, it doesn’t mean everyone accepts it.
Often in actual life, and not infrequently in the myths and popular tales, we encounter the dull case of the call unanswered; for it is always possible to turn the ear to other interests. Refusal of the summons converts the adventure into its negative. Walled in boredom, hard work, or “culture,” the subject loses the power of significant affirmative action and becomes a victim to be saved.
Such a character acts as an example of what not to do. Who not to be like. The individual has given up and stopped advancing in his life-role. And so, he becomes passive and is left to “create new problems for himself and await the gradual approach of his disintegration.”
Literature is full of old, corrupted kings who get overthrown by the young Prince. The old king representing someone who refused the call and strayed off the path while the young Prince took on the mantel of what the King should have been and restored order to the land.
For those who accept the call to adventure, they open themselves to receiving Supernatural Aid.
For those who have not refused the call, the first encounter of the hero-journey is with a protective figure (often a little old crone or old man) who provides the adventurer with amulets against the dragon forces he is about to pass.
We can find two clear examples of this in our culture in the Star Wars series and, once more, in Middle Earth. The first individual Luke Skywalker meets once he accepts the call to adventure is Obi-wan-Kenobi, the Jedi Master. Obi-Wan mentors Luke in the way of the Jedi. While in the Hobbit and Lord of the Rings series, we have Gandalf providing wisdom and knowledge to Bilbo and Frodo Baggins.
This symbolizes the order, or peace, that the adventurer can attain. He is being rewarded for his courage.
That though omnipotence may seem to be endangered by the threshold passages and life awakenings, protective power is always and ever-present within the sanctuary of the heart and even immanent within, or just behind, the unfamiliar features of the world.
After the supernatural aid comes The Crossing Of the First Threshold. Simply put, this is the first trial, first struggle, the first conflict that the hero faces once he has started on the path.
With the personifications of his destiny to guide and aid him, the hero goes forward in his adventure until he comes to the “threshold guardian” at the entrance to the zone of magnified power […] Beyond them is darkness, the unknown, and danger; just as beyond the parental watch is danger to the infant and beyond the protection of his society danger to the member of the tribe.
This is a leap of faith that requires courage on the behalf of the adventurer. This is seen clearly in the Lord of the Rings series as the four hobbits come into imminent danger the moment they decide to leave the Shire. This danger is the Black Riders who are searching for the ring.
The First Threshold is followed by The Belly Of The Whale.
The idea that the passage of the magical threshold is a transit into a sphere of rebirth is symbolized in the worldwide womb image of the belly of the whale. The hero, instead of conquering or conciliating the power of the threshold, is swallowed into the unknown, and would appear to have died.
Once more, the Rings series shows this when Frodo is stabbed by the Black Rider. At the brink of death, Frodo is saved, reborn because now he is forever changed. There is no turning back from this point forwards. No matter what happens, having been swallowed by the “whale”, the hero is transformed, he is changed, he won’t be the same person he was before.
And so begins the transformation of the individual. Having departed from his comfortable life, he steps into the initiation phase, which is full of trials and tribulations through which he either breaks or becomes a stronger version of himself.